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Hari Sarvottama Vayu Jeevottama

A very warm welcome to the blog of Madhwa Brahmins community.
We, Madhwa Brahmins are followers of Jagadguru Sriman Madhwacharya. We originally hail from places in Karnataka and the neighboring states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Our main dialects are Kannada, Tulu, Marathi, Telugu and Konkani.

A brief background of Jagadguru Sri Madhwacharya:

prathamO hanumAn nAma dviteeyO bheema Eva cha |
pUrNaprajna tRuteeyastu bhagavat kAryasAdhakaH ||

As the above shloka from khila vAyustuti explains, Sri Madhwacharya (also known by the names Poornaprajna and Anandateertha) is the third incarnation of Lord MukhyaprAna Vaayu, after Lord Hanuman and Lord Bheemasena. He is the chief proponent of TattvavAda, popularly known as Dvaita. He was born on Vijayadashami day of 1238 CE at Paajaka Kshetra, a small village near Udupi. He is the 22nd commentator on the Brahma sutras of Lord Sri Veda Vyasa.

Kindly note that this blog contains important topics discussed in our Orkut community and some articles on tattvavAda philosophy. All the topics can be found in the BLOG ARCHIVE (right side)

11 May, 2009

Sri Bhagavadgeeta - Chapter 1

Sri Bhagavadgeeta :
verse-by-verse translations
(Chapter 1)


1. The Bhagavad Gita – Translation and Commentaries in English, by Sri S. Subba Rau, Madras; (1906)

2. Gita Saroddhara, by Sri Sri Vishvesha teertha Swamiji, Pejavara maTha, Udupi; English Translation by Sri R. Acharya and Sri R. A. Malagi; (1983)

(Baraha transliteration rules are used while typing the shlokas in this blog. If you have Baraha installed in your PC, you can yourself copy-paste the English text into the software and convert it into any Indian language script that you are comfortable with)

Hare Krishna

Introduction by Sri Vishvesha teertha Swamiji

The Bhagavad Gita is the greatest spiritual and metaphysical scripture of the Hindus. It contains valuable teachings applicable to all stages of human development. Such a universal and all-pervasive teaching with practical solution for every day problems of life fell from the divine lips of the Lord Himself. Sri Krishna had once revealed to his mother the whole universe of infinite dimensions in his tiny mouth; so also, in his short discourse uttered with a limited number of words in a limited span of time Sri Krishna has given the very quintessence of the universal science of life. This indeed is a testimony to the divine glory of Lord Sri Krishna.

Once, after the Kurukshetra war, when the Pandavas were ruling their kingdom, Arjuna besought Sri Krishna: “Oh Lord, I was fortunate to receive from you the teachings of the Gita but that was in the din and bustle of the battlefield; I would very much like to hear it once again at leisure in the calm and peaceful atmosphere now reigning.” To this, the omniscient Lord replied: “Oh Arjuna I do not have the same inspiration today. I cannot recapture that same teaching again.” Although nothing would have been impossible to Him, this episode serves to highlight the extraordinary greatness of the Gita.

The time, the Place and the dramatic context selected by the Lord to give His supreme teaching to humanity are unique. Both the Kaurava and the Pandava armies are lined up face to face and the war is about to begin. The minds of all the soldiers taking part in the war are agitated because they are under the tension of an explosive war. At this time who else but God Himself could have the poise and power to expound such a simple and yet profound philosophic teaching?

In our daily lives, very often grave problems confront us. Confused, we lose our heart. Only at such moments of crisis do we experience the dire need of the Gita. The mind is a battlefield where the good and evil forces fight for supremacy. Unable to face life and its problems, we are prone to run away from our duties and responsibilities out of sheer cowardice. To such cowards, the Gita offers hope and encouragement. It prompts them into rightful action. The Gita which was preached to Arjuna in the context of the Kurukshetra war has wider application to the war that is going on constantly within our mind between the good and the evil forces.

Sri Madhvacharya says that the Mahabharata (which includes the Bhagavadgeeta) has not only a historical but also a metaphysical interpretation. One may wonder whether this teaching given in the bygone days of the Dwapara Yuga will ever be applicable to the modern atomic age! But, in fact, the teachings of the Geeta are perennial and contain elements of truth applicable to all ages.

Chapter 1 – Arjuna vishAdha yOga

shree gurubhyO namaH hariH Om

Verse 1.1

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच :-

धर्मक्षॆत्रॆ कुरुक्षॆत्रॆ समवॆता युयुत्सवः
मामकाः पांडवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत संजय ॥१-१॥

ಧೃತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರ ಉವಾಚ:

ಧರ್ಮಕ್ಷೇತ್ರೇ ಕುರುಕ್ಷೇತ್ರೇ ಸಮವೇತಾ ಯುಯುತ್ಸವಃ
ಮಾಮಕಾಃ ಪಾಂಡವಾಶ್ಚೈವ ಕಿಮಕುರ್ವತ ಸಂಜಯ ||೧-೧||

dhRutarAShTra uvAcha:

dharmakShEtrE kurukShEtrE samavEtA yuyutsavaH
mAmakAH pAMDavAshchaiva kimakurvata saMjaya ||1-1||

Dhritarashtra says: On the field of Kurukshetra, which promotes the righteousness, O Sanjaya, what did my sons and the Pandavas do, who have assembled there, desirous of battle?

Verse 1.2

संजय उवाच :-

दृष्ट्वा तु पांडव अनीकं व्यूढं दुर्यॊधनः तदा
आचार्यं उपसंगम्य राजा वचनं अब्रवीत् ॥ १.२ ॥

ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ:

ದೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾ ತು ಪಾಂಡವ ಅನೀಕಂ ವ್ಯೂಢಂ ದುರ್ಯೋಧನಃ ತದಾ
ಆಚಾರ್ಯಂ ಉಪಸಂಗಮ್ಯ ರಾಜಾ ವಚನಂ ಅಬ್ರವೀತ್ || ೧.೨ ||

saMjaya uvAcha:

dRuShTvA tu pAMDava aneekaM vyUDhaM duryOdhanaH tadA
AchAryaM upasaMgamya rAjA vachanaM abraveet || 1.2 ||

Sanjaya says:
At that time, prince Duryodhana, having seen the army of Pandavas arranged in military phalanx, approached his teacher Dronacharya, and spoke these words.

Verse 1.3

पश्य एतां पांडुपुत्राणां आचार्य महतीं चमूम्
व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रॆण तव शिष्यॆण धीमता ॥ १.३ ॥

ಪಶ್ಯ ಏತಾಂ ಪಾಂಡುಪುತ್ರಾಣಾಂ ಆಚಾರ್ಯ ಮಹತೀಂ ಚಮೂಮ್
ವ್ಯೂಢಾಂ ದ್ರುಪದಪುತ್ರೇಣ ತವ ಶಿಷ್ಯೇಣ ಧೀಮತಾ || ೧.೩ ||

pashya EtAM pAMDuputrANAM AchArya mahateeM chamUm
vyUDhAM drupadaputrENa tava shiShyENa dheematA || 1.3 ||

O AchArya, behold this mighty army of the Pandavas, arranged in military phalanx (array) by your intelligent disciple [Drishtadyumna], son of Drupada.

Verse 1.4

अत्र शूरा महॆष्वासा भीम अर्जुन समा युधि
युयुधानः विराटः च द्रुपदः च महारथः ॥ १.४ ॥

ಅತ್ರ ಶೂರಾ ಮಹೇಷ್ವಾಸಾ ಭೀಮ ಅರ್ಜುನ ಸಮಾ ಯುಧಿ
ಯುಯುಧಾನಃ ವಿರಾಟಃ ಚ ದ್ರುಪದಃ ಚ ಮಹಾರಥಃ || ೧.೪ ||

atra shUrA mahEShvAsA bheema arjuna samA yudhi
yuyudhAnaH virATaH cha drupadaH cha mahArathaH || 1.4 ||

Here in the army there are heroes and great bowmen who are equal in battlefield to Bheema, Arjuna, Yuyudhana (Satyaki), ViraTa and mahAratha Drupada.

Verse 1.5

दृष्टकॆतुः चॆकितानः काशीराजः च वीर्यवान्
पुरुजित् कुंतिभॊजः च शैब्यः च नरपुंगवः ॥ १.५ ॥

ದೃಷ್ಟಕೇತುಃ ಚೇಕಿತಾನಃ ಕಾಶೀರಾಜಃ ಚ ವೀರ್ಯವಾನ್
ಪುರುಜಿತ್ ಕುಂತಿಭೋಜಃ ಚ ಶೈಬ್ಯಃ ಚ ನರಪುಂಗವಃ || ೧.೫ ||

dRuShTakEtuH chEkitAnaH kAshIrAjaH cha veeryavAn
purujit kuMtibhOjaH cha shaibyaH cha narapuMgavaH || 1.5 ||

Dristaketu, Chekitana, King of Kashi, Purujit, Kuntibhoja, Shaibya [who are all] men of prowess and foremost among men.

Verse 1.6

युधामन्युः च उत्तमौजाः च वीर्यवान्
सौभद्रः द्रौपदॆयाः च सर्व ऎव महारथाः ॥ १.६ ॥

ಯುಧಾಮನ್ಯುಃ ಚ ಉತ್ತಮೌಜಾಃ ಚ ವೀರ್ಯವಾನ್
ಸೌಭದ್ರಃ ದ್ರೌಪದೇಯಾಃ ಚ ಸರ್ವ ಏವ ಮಹಾರಥಾಃ || ೧.೬ ||

yudhAmanyuH cha uttamaujAH cha veeryavAn
saubhadraH draupadEyAH cha sarva Eva mahArathAH || 1.6 ||

Yudhamanyu the victorious, Uttamaujas the undaunted, Subhadra's son (Abhimanyu) and the sons of Draupadi all of them are mahArathas. (A single skilled warrior who is able to fight [and win] ten thousand warriors is called a mahAratha)

Verse 1.7

अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा यॆ तान् निबॊध द्विजॊत्तम
नायका मम सैन्यस्य सज्ञार्थं तान् ब्रवीमि तॆ ॥ १.७ ॥

ಅಸ್ಮಾಕಂ ತು ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟಾ ಯೇ ತಾನ್ ನಿಬೋಧ ದ್ವಿಜೋತ್ತಮ
ನಾಯಕಾ ಮಮ ಸೈನ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಸಜ್ಞಾರ್ಥಂ ತಾನ್ ಬ್ರವೀಮಿ ತೇ || ೧.೭ ||

asmAkaM tu vishiShTA yE tAn nibOdha dwijOttama
nAyakA mama sainyasya saj~jArthaM tAn braveemi tE || 1.7 ||

O the best of brahmanas, note the best among the leaders of my army; I will name them for your special notice.

Verse 1.8

भवान् भीष्मः च कर्णः च कृपः च समितिंजयः
अश्वत्थामा विकर्णः च सॊमदत्तिः तथैव च ॥ १.८ ॥

ಭವಾನ್ ಭೀಷ್ಮಃ ಚ ಕರ್ಣಃ ಚ ಕೃಪಃ ಚ ಸಮಿತಿಂಜಯಃ
ಅಶ್ವತ್ಥಾಮಾ ವಿಕರ್ಣಃ ಚ ಸೋಮದತ್ತಿಃ ತಥೈವ ಚ || ೧.೮ ||

bhavAn bheeShmaH cha karNaH cha kRupaH cha samitiMjayaH
ashvatthAmA vikarNaH cha sOmadattiH tathaiva cha || 1.8 ||

Yourself, Bheeshma, Karna and Kripa who are always victorious in battle, so also Ashwatthama, Vikarna and the son of Somadutta (Bhurishravas).

Verse 1.9

अन्यॆ च बहवः शूरा मदर्थॆ त्यक्तजीविताः
नाना शस्त्र प्रहरणाः सर्वॆ युद्धविशारदाः ॥ १.९ ॥

ಅನ್ಯೇ ಚ ಬಹವಃ ಶೂರಾ ಮದರ್ಥೇ ತ್ಯಕ್ತಜೀವಿತಾಃ
ನಾನಾ ಶಸ್ತ್ರ ಪ್ರಹರಣಾಃ ಸರ್ವೇ ಯುದ್ಧವಿಶಾರದಾಃ || ೧.೯ ||

anyE cha bahavaH shUrA madarthE tyaktajeevitAH
nAnA shastra praharaNAH sarvE yuddhavishAradAH || 1.9 ||

And also many other brave warriors, all equipped with diverse weapons, all dexterous in battle, prepared to risk their lives for my sake.

Verse 1.10

अपर्याप्तं तत् अस्माकं बलं भीष्म अभिरक्षितम्
पर्याप्तं तु इदं एतॆषां बलं भीम अभिरक्षितम् ॥ १.१० ॥

ಅಪರ್ಯಾಪ್ತಂ ತತ್ ಅಸ್ಮಾಕಂ ಬಲಂ ಭೀಷ್ಮ ಅಭಿರಕ್ಷಿತಮ್
ಪರ್ಯಾಪ್ತಂ ತು ಇದಂ ಏತೇಷಾಂ ಬಲಂ ಭೀಮ ಅಭಿರಕ್ಷಿತಮ್ || ೧.೧೦ ||

aparyAptaM tat asmAkaM balaM bheeShma abhirakShitam
paryAptaM tu idaM EtEShAM balaM bheema abhirakShitam || 1.10 ||

[Even then] our army protected by Bheeshma looks to be inadequate, and their army which is protected by Bheema looks to be adequate.

(Note: This verse is often misinterpreted by many translators to mean the opposite!)

Verse 1.11

अयनॆषु च सर्वॆषु यथा भागं अवस्थिताः
भीष्मं एव अभिरक्षंतु भवंतः सर्व एव हि ॥ १.११ ॥

ಅಯನೇಷು ಚ ಸರ್ವೇಷು ಯಥಾ ಭಾಗಂ ಅವಸ್ಥಿತಾಃ
ಭೀಷ್ಮಂ ಏವ ಅಭಿರಕ್ಷಂತು ಭವಂತಃ ಸರ್ವ ಏವ ಹಿ || ೧.೧೧ ||

ayanEShu cha sarvEShu yathA bhAgaM avasthitAH
bheeShmaM Eva abhirakShaMtu bhavaMtaH sarva Eva hi || 1.11 ||

[Therefore] all of you standing in your respective positions in all the strategic points should chiefly guard Bheeshma. (!)

Verse 1.12

तस्य संजनयन् हर्षं कुरु वृद्धः पितामहः
सिंहनादं विनद्य उच्छैः शंखं दध्मौ प्रतापवान् ॥ १.१२ ॥

ತಸ್ಯ ಸಂಜನಯನ್ ಹರ್ಷಂ ಕುರು ವೃದ್ಧಃ ಪಿತಾಮಹಃ
ಸಿಂಹನಾದಂ ವಿನದ್ಯ ಉಚ್ಛೈಃ ಶಂಖಂ ದಧ್ಮೌ ಪ್ರತಾಪವಾನ್ || ೧.೧೨ ||

tasya saMjanayan harShaM kuru vRuddhaH pitAmahaH
siMhanAdaM vinadya ucChaiH shaMkhaM dadhmau pratApavAn || 1.12 ||

Then Bheeshma, the aged valiant grandsire of Kuru dynasty, in order to cheer up Duryodhana, made a lion’s roar and blew his conch shell very loudly.

Verse 1.13

ततः शंखः च भॆर्यः च पणव-आनक-गॊमुखाः
सहसा एव अभ्यहन्यंत सः शब्दः तुमुलः अभवत् ॥ १.१३ ॥

ತತಃ ಶಂಖಃ ಚ ಭೇರ್ಯಃ ಚ ಪಣವ-ಆನಕ-ಗೋಮುಖಾಃ
ಸಹಸಾ ಎವ ಅಭ್ಯಹನ್ಯಂತ ಸಃ ಶಬ್ದಃ ತುಮುಲಃ ಅಭವತ್ || ೧.೧೩ ||

tataH shaMkhaH cha bhEryaH cha paNava-Anaka-gOmukhAH
sahasA eva abhyahanyaMta saH shabdaH tumulaH abhavat || 1.13 ||

At the same time, conch shells, bugles, trumpets, kettledrums and cow horns were all suddenly and simultaneously sounded, and that combined sound became tumultuous (turbulent).

Verse 1.14

ततः श्वॆतैः हयैः युक्तॆ महति स्यंदनॆ स्थितौ
माधवः पांडवः चैव दिव्यौ शंखौ प्रदध्मतुः ॥ १.१४ ॥

ತತಃ ಶ್ವೇತೈಃ ಹಯೈಃ ಯುಕ್ತೇ ಮಹತಿ ಸ್ಯಂದನೇ ಸ್ಥಿತೌ
ಮಾಧವಃ ಪಾಂಡವಃ ಚೈವ ದಿವ್ಯೌ ಶಂಖೌ ಪ್ರದಧ್ಮತುಃ || ೧.೧೪ ||

tataH shwEtaiH hayaiH yuktE mahati syaMdanE sthitau
mAdhavaH pAMDavaH chaiva divyau shaMkhau pradadhmatuH || 1.14 ||

Thereafter, both Lord Krishna and Arjuna stationed on a magnificent chariot harnessed by white horses sounded their divine conch shells.

Verse 1.15

पांचजन्यं हृषीकॆशः दॆवदत्तं धनंजयः
पौंड्रं दध्मौ महाशंखं भीमकर्मा वृकॊदरः ॥ १.१५ ॥

ಪಾಂಚಜನ್ಯಂ ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶಃ ದೇವದತ್ತಂ ಧನಂಜಯಃ
ಪೌಂಡ್ರಂ ದಧ್ಮೌ ಮಹಾಶಂಖಂ ಭೀಮಕರ್ಮಾ ವೃಕೋದರಃ || ೧.೧೫ ||

pAMchajanyaM hRuSheekEshaH dEvadattaM dhanaMjayaH
pauMDraM dadhmau mahAshaMkhaM bheemakarmA vRukOdaraH || 1.15 ||

Hrisheekesha – the ruler of senses (Krishna) – blew his Panchajanya, Dhananjaya (Arjuna) blew his Devadutta, Vrikodara (Bheema) of terrible deeds blew his mighty conch shell Paundra.

Verse 1.16-1.18

अनंतविजयं राजा कुंतीपुत्रः युधिष्ठिरः
नकुलः सहदॆवः च सुघॊष-मणिपुष्पकौ ॥ १.१६ ॥

काश्यः च परमॆष्वासः शिखंडि च महारथः
धृष्टद्युम्नः विराटः च सात्यकि च अपराजितः ॥ १.१७ ॥

द्रुपदः द्रौपदॆयाः च सर्वशः पृथिवीपतॆ
सौभद्रः च महाबाहुः शंखां दध्मुः पृथक् पृथक् ॥ १.१८ ॥

ಅನಂತವಿಜಯಂ ರಾಜಾ ಕುಂತೀಪುತ್ರಃ ಯುಧಿಷ್ಠಿರಃ
ನಕುಲಃ ಸಹದೇವಃ ಚ ಸುಘೋಷ-ಮಣಿಪುಷ್ಪಕೌ || ೧.೧೬ ||

ಕಾಶ್ಯಃ ಚ ಪರಮೇಷ್ವಾಸಃ ಶಿಖಂಡಿ ಚ ಮಹಾರಥಃ
ಧೃಷ್ಟದ್ಯುಮ್ನಃ ವಿರಾಟಃ ಚ ಸಾತ್ಯಕಿ ಚ ಅಪರಾಜಿತಃ || ೧.೧೭ ||

ದ್ರುಪದಃ ದ್ರೌಪದೇಯಾಃ ಚ ಸರ್ವಶಃ ಪೃಥಿವೀಪತೇ
ಸೌಭದ್ರಃ ಚ ಮಹಾಬಾಹುಃ ಶಂಖಾಂ ದಧ್ಮುಃ ಪೃಥಕ್ ಪೃಥಕ್ || ೧.೧೮ ||

anaMtavijayaM rAjA kuMteeputraH yudhiShThiraH
nakulaH sahadEvaH cha sughOSha-maNipuShpakau || 1.16 ||

kAshyaH cha paramEShvAsaH shikhaMDi cha mahArathaH
dhRuShTadyumnaH virATaH cha sAtyaki cha aparAjitaH || 1.17 ||

drupadaH draupadEyAH cha sarvashaH pRuthiveepatE
saubhadraH cha mahAbAhuH shaMkhAM dadhmuH pRuthak pRuthak || 1.18 ||

King Yudhishtira - the son of Kunti blew his Ananthavijaya conch shell; Nakula-Sahadeva blew their conch shells Sughosha and Manipushpaka.

The expert bowman - the King of Kashi, the mighty chariot warrior Shikhandi, Drushtadyumna, Virata, the unconquerable Satyaki;

Drupada, the sons of Draupadi, the mighty armed son of Subhadra - Abhimanyu, all blew their respective conch shells, O King.

Verse 1.19

सः घॊषः धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत्
नभः च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलः अभ्यनुनादयन् ॥ १.१९ ॥

ಸಃ ಘೋಷಃ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾಣಾಂ ಹೃದಯಾನಿ ವ್ಯದಾರಯತ್

ನಭಃ ಚ ಪೃಥಿವೀಂ ಚೈವ ತುಮುಲಃ ಅಭ್ಯನುನಾದಯನ್ || ೧.೧೯ ||

saH ghOShaH dhArtarAShTrANAM hRudayAni vyadArayat
nabhaH cha pRuthiveeM chaiva tumulaH abhyanunAdayan || 1.19 ||

That tumultuous vibrations resounding through the sky and earth shattered the hearts of the sons of Dritharashtra

Verse 1.20

अथ व्यवस्थितां दृष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान् कपिध्वजः
प्रवृत्तॆ शस्त्रसंपातॆ धनुः उद्यम्य पांडवः ॥ १.२० ॥

ಅಥ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಿತಾಂ ದೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ ಕಪಿಧ್ವಜಃ

ಪ್ರವೃತ್ತೇ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಸಂಪಾತೇ ಧನುಃ ಉದ್ಯಮ್ಯ ಪಾಂಡವಃ || ೧.೨೦ ||

atha vyavasthitAM dRuShTvA dhArtarAShTrAn kapidhwajaH
pravRuttE shastrasaMpAtE dhanuH udyamya pAMDavaH || 1.20 ||

Then having seen the sons of Dritharashtra standing in battle order, the firing of missiles about to commence, Arjuna the son of Pandu, whose emblem is Hanumanta, took up his bow.

Verse 1.21

हृषीकॆशं तदा वाक्यं इदं आह महीपतॆ
अर्जुन उवाच :-

सॆनयॊः उभयॊः मध्यॆ रथं स्थापय मॆ अच्युत ॥ १.२१ ॥

ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶಂ ತದಾ ವಾಕ್ಯಂ ಇದಂ ಆಹ ಮಹೀಪತೇ

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಸೇನಯೋಃ ಉಭಯೋಃ ಮಧ್ಯೇ ರಥಂ ಸ್ಥಾಪಯ ಮೇ ಅಚ್ಯುತ || ೧.೨೧ ||

hRuSheekEshaM tadA vAkyaM idaM Aha maheepatE
arjuna uvAcha :-
sEnayOH ubhayOH madhyE rathaM sthApaya mE achyuta || 1.21 ||

O King, then Arjuna spoke these words to Lord Hrishikesha (Krishna):
Achyuta, place my chariot in the middle of the two armies.

Verse 1.22

यावत् एतान् निरीक्षॆ अहं यॊद्धु कामान् अवस्थितान्
कैः मया सह यॊद्धव्यं अस्मिन् रण समुद्यमॆ ॥ १.२२ ॥

ಯಾವತ್ ಏತಾನ್ ನಿರೀಕ್ಷೇ ಅಹಂ ಯೋದ್ಧು ಕಾಮಾನ್ ಅವಸ್ಥಿತಾನ್

ಕೈಃ ಮಯಾ ಸಹ ಯೋದ್ಧವ್ಯಂ ಅಸ್ಮಿನ್ ರಣ ಸಮುದ್ಯಮೇ || ೧.೨೨ ||

yAvat EtAn nireekShE ahaM yOddhu kAmAn avasthitAn
kaiH mayA saha yOddhavyaM asmin raNa samudyamE || 1.22 ||

So that I may see who have stood up eager for battle, and with whom I should fight in this out-breaking war.

Verse 1.23

यॊत्स्यमानान् अवॆक्षॆ अहं य यॆतॆ अत्र समागताः
धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेः युद्धे प्रिय चिकीर्षवः ॥ १.२३ ॥

ಯೋತ್ಸ್ಯಮಾನಾನ್ ಅವೇಕ್ಷೇ ಅಹಂ ಯ ಯೇತೇ ಅತ್ರ ಸಮಾಗತಾಃ

ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಸ್ಯ ದುರ್ಬುದ್ಧೆಃ ಯುದ್ಧೆ ಪ್ರಿಯ ಚಿಕೀರ್ಷವಃ || ೧.೨೩ ||

yOtsyamAnAn avEkShE ahaM ya yEtE atra samAgatAH
dhArtarAShTrasya durbuddheH yuddhe priya chikeerShavaH || 1.23 ||

So that I may also note those who have gathered here intending to gratify the evil-minded son (Duryodhana) of Dritarashtra.

Verse 1.24

संजय उवाच -
एवं उक्तः हृषीकॆशः गुडाकॆशॆन भारत

सॆनयॊः उभयॊः मध्यॆ स्थापयित्वा रथॊत्तमम् ॥ १.२४ ॥

ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ -

ಏವಂ ಉಕ್ತಃ ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶಃ ಗುಡಾಕೇಶೇನ ಭಾರತ
ಸೇನಯೋಃ ಉಭಯೋಃ ಮಧ್ಯೇ ಸ್ಥಾಪಯಿತ್ವಾ ರಥೋತ್ತಮಮ್ || ೧.೨೪ ||

saMjaya uvAcha -
EvaM uktaH hRuSheekEshaH guDAkEshEna bhArata
sEnayOH ubhayOH madhyE sthApayitvA rathOttamam || 1.24 ||

Sanjaya says: O Dritarashtra, as told by Gudakesha (Arjuna), Hrisheekesha (Krishna) drew that finest of all chariots to the middle of both the armies.

Verse 1.25

भीष्म द्रॊण प्रमुखतः सर्वॆषां च महीक्षिताम्
उवाच पार्थ पश्य एतान् समवॆतान् कुरून् इति ॥ १.२५ ॥

ಭೀಷ್ಮ ದ್ರೋಣ ಪ್ರಮುಖತಃ ಸರ್ವೇಷಾಂ ಚ ಮಹೀಕ್ಷಿತಾಮ್

ಉವಾಚ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಪಶ್ಯ ಏತಾನ್ ಸಮವೇತಾನ್ ಕುರೂನ್ ಇತಿ || ೧.೨೫ ||

bheeShma drONa pramukhataH sarvEShAM cha maheekShitAm
uvAcha pArtha pashya EtAn samavEtAn kurUn iti || 1.25 ||

After having stayed the chariot in front of Bheeshma, Drona and all the kings of the world, Lord Krishna said: Partha (Arjuna), behold all these members of the Kuru dynasty.

Verse 1.26-27

तत्र अपश्यत् स्थितान् पार्थ पितॄन् अथ पितामहान्
अचार्यान् मातुलान् भ्रातॄन् पुत्रान् पौत्रान् सखीम् तथा ॥ १.२६ ॥

श्वशुरान् सुहृदः च एव सॆनयॊः उभयॊः अपि
तान् समीक्ष्य सः कौंतॆयः सर्वान् बंधून् अवस्थितान्

कृपया परया आविष्टः विषीदन् इदं अब्रवीत् ॥ १.२७ ॥

ತತ್ರ ಅಪಶ್ಯತ್ ಸ್ಥಿತಾನ್ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಪಿತೄನ್ ಅಥ ಪಿತಾಮಹಾನ್

ಅಚಾರ್ಯಾನ್ ಮಾತುಲಾನ್ ಭ್ರಾತೄನ್ ಪುತ್ರಾನ್ ಪೌತ್ರಾನ್ ಸಖೀಮ್ ತಥಾ || ೧.೨೬ ||

ಶ್ವಶುರಾನ್ ಸುಹೃದಃ ಚ ಏವ ಸೇನಯೋಃ ಉಭಯೋಃ ಅಪಿ
ತಾನ್ ಸಮೀಕ್ಷ್ಯ ಸಃ ಕೌಂತೇಯಃ ಸರ್ವಾನ್ ಬಂಧೂನ್ ಅವಸ್ಥಿತಾನ್
ಕೃಪಯಾ ಪರಯಾ ಆವಿಷ್ಟಃ ವಿಷೀದನ್ ಇದಂ ಅಬ್ರವೀತ್ || ೧.೨೭ ||

tatra apashyat sthitAn pArtha pitRUn atha pitAmahAn
achAryAn mAtulAn bhrAtRUn putrAn pautrAn sakheem tathA || 1.26 ||

shwashurAn suhRudaH cha Eva sEnayOH ubhayOH api
tAn sameekShya saH kauMtEyaH sarvAn baMdhUn avasthitAn
kRupayA parayA AviShTaH viSheedan idaM abraveet || 1.27 ||

There standing in both the armies, ready for fighting, Arjuna saw fatherly elders, grandfatherly elders, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends, fathers-in-law, comrades and benefactors;

Seeing all these kinsmen arrayed up for war, the son of Kunti (Arjuna) was deeply moved to pity, and in sadness he spoke [to Krishna] as follows:

Verse 1.28-29

अर्जुन उवाच :-
दृष्ट्वा इमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम्
सीदंति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ॥ १.२८ ॥

वॆपथुः च शरीरॆ मॆ रॊमहर्षः च जायतॆ
गांडीवं स्रंसतॆ हस्तात् त्वक् च परिदह्यतॆ ॥ १.२९ ॥

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ :-

ದೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾ ಇಮಂ ಸ್ವಜನಂ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ಯುಯುತ್ಸುಂ ಸಮುಪಸ್ಥಿತಮ್
ಸೀದಂತಿ ಮಮ ಗಾತ್ರಾಣಿ ಮುಖಂ ಚ ಪರಿಶುಷ್ಯತಿ || ೧.೨೮ ||

ವೇಪಥುಃ ಚ ಶರೀರೇ ಮೇ ರೋಮಹರ್ಷಃ ಚ ಜಾಯತೇ
ಗಾಂಡೀವಂ ಸ್ರಂಸತೇ ಹಸ್ತಾತ್ ತ್ವಕ್ ಚ ಪರಿದಹ್ಯತೇ || ೧.೨೯ ||

arjuna uvAcha :-
dRuShTvA imaM svajanaM kRuShNa yuyutsuM samupasthitam
seedaMti mama gAtrANi mukhaM cha parishuShyati || 1.28 ||

vEpathuH cha shareerE mE rOmaharShaH cha jAyatE
gAMDeevaM sraMsatE hastAt tvak cha paridahyatE || 1.29 ||

Arjuna said: O Krishna, seeing all these kinsmen assembled ready for battle, my limbs are failing and my mouth is drying up

My whole body is trembling, my hairs are standing on end, my Gandeeva bow is slipping from my hands and my skin is burning all over.

Verse 1.30

न च शक्नॊमि अवस्थातुं भ्रमति इव च मॆ मनः
निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि कॆशव ॥ १.३० ॥

ನ ಚ ಶಕ್ನೋಮಿ ಅವಸ್ಥಾತುಂ ಭ್ರಮತಿ ಇವ ಚ ಮೇ ಮನಃ

ನಿಮಿತ್ತಾನಿ ಚ ಪಶ್ಯಾಮಿ ವಿಪರೀತಾನಿ ಕೇಶವ || ೧.೩೦ ||

na cha shaknOmi avasthAtuM bhramati iva cha mE manaH
nimittAni cha pashyAmi vipareetAni kEshava || 1.30 ||

O Keshava, I am unable to stand, my mind is whirling, and I am seeing bad omens indicating dire consequences.

Verse 1.31

न च श्रॆयः अनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनं आहवॆ
न कांक्षॆ विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ॥ १.३१ ॥

ನ ಚ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಅನುಪಶ್ಯಾಮಿ ಹತ್ವಾ ಸ್ವಜನಂ ಆಹವೇ
ನ ಕಾಂಕ್ಷೇ ವಿಜಯಂ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ನ ಚ ರಾಜ್ಯಂ ಸುಖಾನಿ ಚ || ೧.೩೧ ||

na cha shrEyaH anupashyAmi hatvA swajanaM AhavE
na kAMkShE vijayaM kRuShNa na cha rAjyaM sukhAni cha || 1.31 ||

I do not see any good in slaying my own kinsmen in battle. O Krishna, I wish not for victory, nor kingdom, nor even happiness.

Verse 1.32-1.34

किं नः राज्यॆन गॊविंद किं भॊगैः जीवितॆन वा
यॆषां अर्थॆ कांक्षितं नः राज्यं भॊगाः सुखानि च ॥ १.३२ ॥

त इमॆ अवस्थिता युद्धॆ प्राणान् त्यक्त्वा धनानि च
आचार्याः पितरः पुत्राः तथा ऎव च पितामहाः ॥ १.३३ ॥

मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः संबंधिनः तथा
ऎतान् न हंतुं इच्छामि घ्नतः अपि मधुसूदन ॥ १.३४ ॥

ಕಿಂ ನಃ ರಾಜ್ಯೇನ ಗೋವಿಂದ ಕಿಂ ಭೋಗೈಃ ಜೀವಿತೇನ ವಾ
ಯೇಷಾಂ ಅರ್ಥೇ ಕಾಂಕ್ಷಿತಂ ನಃ ರಾಜ್ಯಂ ಭೋಗಾಃ ಸುಖಾನಿ ಚ || ೧.೩೨ ||

ತ ಇಮೇ ಅವಸ್ಥಿತಾ ಯುದ್ಧೇ ಪ್ರಾಣಾನ್ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಧನಾನಿ ಚ
ಆಚಾರ್ಯಾಃ ಪಿತರಃ ಪುತ್ರಾಃ ತಥಾ ಏವ ಚ ಪಿತಾಮಹಾಃ || ೧.೩೩ ||

ಮಾತುಲಾಃ ಶ್ವಶುರಾಃ ಪೌತ್ರಾಃ ಶ್ಯಾಲಾಃ ಸಂಬಂಧಿನಃ ತಥಾ
ಏತಾನ್ ನ ಹಂತುಂ ಇಚ್ಛಾಮಿ ಘ್ನತಃ ಅಪಿ ಮಧುಸೂದನ || ೧.೩೪ ||

kiM naH rAjyEna gOviMda kiM bhOgaiH jeevitEna vA
yEShAM arthE kAMkShitaM naH rAjyaM bhOgAH sukhAni cha || 1.32 ||

ta imE avasthitA yuddhE prANAn tyaktvA dhanAni cha
AchAryAH pitaraH putrAH tathA Eva cha pitAmahAH || 1.33 ||

mAtulAH shvashurAH pautrAH shyAlAH saMbaMdhinaH tathA
EtAn na haMtuM icChAmi ghnataH api madhusUdana || 1.34 ||

O Govinda, what value is kingdom to us? what enjoyment? or even life? if they for whom our kingdom, material pleasure and happiness is desired - preceptors, fatherly elders, sons, grandfatherly elders, maternal uncles, fathers in law, grandsons, brothers in law, and relatives - are all present on this battle field ready to give up their kingdom and even lives? O Madhusudana, even if they want to take my life I do not wish to take their lives.

Verse 1.35

अपि त्रैलॊक्य राज्यस्य हॆतॊः किं नु महीकृतॆ
निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्यात् जनार्दन ॥ १.३५ ॥

ಅಪಿ ತ್ರೈಲೋಕ್ಯ ರಾಜ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಹೇತೋಃ ಕಿಂ ನು ಮಹೀಕೃತೇ
ನಿಹತ್ಯ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ನಃ ಕಾ ಪ್ರೀತಿಃ ಸ್ಯಾತ್ ಜನಾರ್ದನ || ೧.೩೫ ||

api trailOkya rAjyasya hEtOH kiM nu maheekRutE
nihatya dhArtarAShTrAnnaH kA preetiH syAt janArdana || 1.35 ||

Not just for the sake of Earth, even if it was for the kingship of the three worlds in exchange for slaying the sons of Dhritarashtra, what happiness will be derived from it by us, O Janardana?

Verse 1.36

पापं ऎव आश्रयॆत् अस्मान् हत्वा ऎतान् आततायिनः
तस्मात् न अर्हाः वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान् सबांधवान्
स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव ॥ १.३६ ॥

ಪಾಪಂ ಏವ ಆಶ್ರಯೇತ್ ಅಸ್ಮಾನ್ ಹತ್ವಾ ಏತಾನ್ ಆತತಾಯಿನಃ
ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ನ ಅರ್ಹಾಃ ವಯಂ ಹಂತುಂ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ ಸಬಾಂಧವಾನ್
ಸ್ವಜನಂ ಹಿ ಕಥಂ ಹತ್ವಾ ಸುಖಿನಃ ಸ್ಯಾಮ ಮಾಧವ || ೧.೩೬ ||

pApaM Eva AshrayEt asmAn hatvA EtAn AtatAyinaH
tasmAt na arhAH vayaM hantuM dhArtarAShTrAn sabAMdhavAn
swajanaM hi kathaM hatvA sukhinaH syAma mAdhava || 1.36 ||

Only sin will take hold of us by slaying our kinsmen, even though they are ruffians. So it is not proper for us to slay the sons of Dhritarashtra, along with our family members. Indeed, how can we be happy O Madhava, having killed our own kith and kin?

Verse 1.37-1.38

यद्यपि एतॆ न पश्यंति लॊभ-उपहत चॆतसः
कुल क्षय कृतं दॊषं मित्र द्रॊहे च पातकम् ॥ १.३७ ॥

कथं न ज्ञॆयं अस्माभिः पापात् अस्मात् निवर्तितुम्
कुल क्षय कृत दॊषं प्रपश्यद्भिः जनार्दन ॥ १.३८ ॥

ಯದ್ಯಪಿ ಏತೇ ನ ಪಶ್ಯಂತಿ ಲೋಭ ಉಪಹತ ಚೇತಸಃ
ಕುಲ ಕ್ಷಯ ಕೃತಂ ದೋಷಂ ಮಿತ್ರ ದ್ರೋಹೆ ಚ ಪಾತಕಮ್ || ೧.೩೭ ||

ಕಥಂ ನ ಜ್ಞೇಯಂ ಅಸ್ಮಾಭಿಃ ಪಾಪಾತ್ ಅಸ್ಮಾತ್ ನಿವರ್ತಿತುಮ್
ಕುಲ ಕ್ಷಯ ಕೃತ ದೋಷಂ ಪ್ರಪಶ್ಯದ್ಭಿಃ ಜನಾರ್ದನ || ೧.೩೮ ||

yadyapi EtE na pashyaMti lObha upahata chEtasaH
kula kShaya kRutaM dOShaM mitra drOhe cha pAtakam || 1.37 ||

kathaM na j~jEyaM asmAbhiH pApAt asmAt nivartitum
kula kShaya kRuta dOShaM prapashyadbhiH janArdana || 1.38 ||

O Janardana, although these men, whose hearts are afflicted by greed, do not see the sinful reaction in quarrelling with friends, and the crime of destroying family members, why should we, understanding this grievous crime of destroying family members, not refrain from this sinful act?

Verse 1.39

कुलक्षयॆ प्रणश्यंति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः
धर्मॆ नष्टॆ कुलं कृत्स्नं अधर्मः अभिभवति उत ॥ १.३९ ॥

ಕುಲಕ್ಷಯೇ ಪ್ರಣಶ್ಯಂತಿ ಕುಲಧರ್ಮಾಃ ಸನಾತನಾಃ
ಧರ್ಮೇ ನಷ್ಟೇ ಕುಲಂ ಕೃತ್ಸ್ನಂ ಅಧರ್ಮಃ ಅಭಿಭವತಿ ಉತ || ೧.೩೯ ||

kulakShayE praNashyaMti kuladharmAH sanAtanAH
dharmE naShTE kulaM kRutsnaM adharmaH abhibhavati uta || 1.39 ||

With the destruction of the race the spiritual traditions of the race handed down from time immemorial perish forever; when spiritual values are destroyed then unrighteousness predominates the entire society.

Verse 1.40

अधर्म अभिभवात् कृष्ण प्रदुष्यंति कुलस्त्रियः
स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णॆय जायते वर्णसंकरः ॥ १.४० ॥

ಅಧರ್ಮ ಅಭಿಭವಾತ್ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ಪ್ರದುಷ್ಯಂತಿ ಕುಲಸ್ತ್ರಿಯಃ
ಸ್ತ್ರೀಷು ದುಷ್ಟಾಸು ವಾರ್ಷ್ಣೇಯ ಜಾಯತೆ ವರ್ಣಸಂಕರಃ || ೧.೪೦ ||

adharma abhibhavAt kRuShNa praduShyaMti kulastriyaH
streeShu duShTAsu vArShNEya jAyate varNasaMkaraH || 1.40 ||

O Krishna, when the unrighteousness is predominant, women of the race become degraded, and from the degradation of womanhood, O Varshneya (Krishna), confusion about varnas (undesirable offspring) comes into existence.

Verse 1.41

संकरः नरकाय एव कुलघ्नानं कुलस्य च
पतंति पितरः हि एषां लुप्त पिंड उदक क्रियाः ॥ १.४१ ॥

ಸಂಕರಃ ನರಕಾಯ ಏವ ಕುಲಘ್ನಾನಂ ಕುಲಸ್ಯ ಚ
ಪತಂತಿ ಪಿತರಃ ಹಿ ಏಷಾಂ ಲುಪ್ತ ಪಿಂಡ ಉದಕ ಕ್ರಿಯಾಃ || ೧.೪೧ ||

saMkaraH narakAya Eva kulaghnAnaM kulasya cha
pataMti pitaraH hi EShAM lupta piMDa udaka kriyAH || 1.41 ||

Such confusion of castes certainly leads to hell for the entire race as well as the destroyers of the race. Their ancestors fall down to hell due to termination of offerings of the rice-ball and water (pinDa)

Verse 1.42

दॊषैः एतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्ण संकर कारकैः
उत्साद्यंते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माः च शाश्वताः ॥ १.४२ ॥

ದೋಷೈಃ ಏತೈಃ ಕುಲಘ್ನಾನಾಂ ವರ್ಣ ಸಂಕರ ಕಾರಕೈಃ
ಉತ್ಸಾದ್ಯಂತೆ ಜಾತಿಧರ್ಮಾಃ ಕುಲಧರ್ಮಾಃ ಚ ಶಾಶ್ವತಾಃ || ೧.೪೨ ||

dOShaiH EtaiH kulaghnAnAM varNa saMkara kArakaiH
utsAdyaMte jAtidharmAH kuladharmAH cha shAshvatAH || 1.42 ||

Such heinous deeds by the slayers of the family give rise to a population of undesirable progeny completely eradicating the eternal caste virtues and spiritual traditions of the family and the nobility of lineage.

Verse 1.43

उत्सन्न कुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन
नरकॆ नियतॆ वासः भवति इति अनुशुश्रुम ॥ १.४३ ॥

ಉತ್ಸನ್ನ ಕುಲಧರ್ಮಾಣಾಂ ಮನುಷ್ಯಾಣಾಂ ಜನಾರ್ದನ
ನರಕೇ ನಿಯತೇ ವಾಸಃ ಭವತಿ ಇತಿ ಅನುಶುಶ್ರುಮ || ೧.೪೩ ||

utsanna kuladharmANAM manuShyANAM janArdana
narakE niyatE vAsaH bhavati iti anushushruma || 1.43 ||

O Janardana, I have heard from the learned that those persons, whose spiritual family traditions have been lost, eternally become residents of hell.

Verse 1.44

अहः बत महत् पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम्
यत् राज्य-सुख-लॊभॆन हंतुं स्वजनं उद्यताः ॥ १.४४ ॥

ಅಹಃ ಬತ ಮಹತ್ ಪಾಪಂ ಕರ್ತುಂ ವ್ಯವಸಿತಾ ವಯಮ್
ಯತ್ ರಾಜ್ಯ-ಸುಖ-ಲೋಭೇನ ಹಂತುಂ ಸ್ವಜನಂ ಉದ್ಯತಾಃ || ೧.೪೪ ||

ahaH bata mahat pApaM kartuM vyavasitA vayam
yat rAjya-sukha-lObhEna haMtuM swajanaM udyatAH || 1.44 ||

Alas ! How strange it is that we have made up our mind to commit this great sin ! Just because of greed for royal luxuries we are prepared to slay our own kinsmen !

Verse 1.45

यदि मां अप्रतीकारं अशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः
धार्तराष्ट्राः रणॆ हन्युः तत् मॆ क्षॆमतरं भवॆत् ॥ १.४५ ॥

ಯದಿ ಮಾಂ ಅಪ್ರತೀಕಾರಂ ಅಶಸ್ತ್ರಂ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಪಾಣಯಃ
ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾಃ ರಣೇ ಹನ್ಯುಃ ತತ್ ಮೇ ಕ್ಷೇಮತರಂ ಭವೇತ್ || ೧.೪೫ ||

yadi mAM aprateekAraM ashastraM shastrapANayaH
dhArtarAShTrAH raNE hanyuH tat mE kShEmataraM bhavEt || 1.45 ||

It would be better for me if the sons of Dhritarashtra, with weapons in their hands, should slay me in the battlefield unarmed and unresisting.

Verse 1.46

संजय उवाच :-
एवं उक्त्वा अर्जुनः संख्यॆ रथ-उपस्थः उपाविशत्
विसृज्य सः शरं चापं शॊक संविग्न मानसः ॥१.४६॥

ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಏವಂ ಉಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಅರ್ಜುನಃ ಸಂಖ್ಯೇ ರಥ-ಉಪಸ್ಥಃ ಉಪಾವಿಶತ್
ವಿಸೃಜ್ಯ ಸಃ ಶರಂ ಚಾಪಂ ಶೋಕ ಸಂವಿಗ್ನ ಮಾನಸಃ ||೧.೪೬||

saMjaya uvAcha :-
EvaM uktvA arjunaH saMkhyE ratha-upasthaH upAvishat
visRujya saH sharaM chApaM shOka saMvigna mAnasaH ||1.46||

Sanjaya said: Having thus spoken on the battlefield, Arjuna cast aside his bow and arrows, and sank down on the seat of the chariot, with his mind perplexed with grief.

The End of "Arjuna Vishaada Yoga", the First chapter of Srimad Bhagavadgeeta.

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